Reform of personal identity codes

Personal identity codes are being reformed. In the current personal identity code model, each day has a limited number of codes, and now the number of identity codes is running low for some days. Sufficiency of available personal identity codes ensured by new intermediate characters.

The Digital and Population Data Services Agency is responsible for implementing the changes in the agency’s services, which are also widely used by other organisations. The reform also requires action from other organisations whose systems make use of personal identity codes.

The changes do not require any action from private individuals. Currently valid personal identity codes will not be voided, which means that the personal identity codes that have already been granted will remain unchanged.

DVV’s estimation of the timetable for the introduction of new intermediate characters

Situation as of 9/2023: According to the current estimate, personal identity codes with intermediate characters in line with the new intermediate character decree will be issued for the first time in March 2024.

This estimate is based on the average number of personal identity codes issued in 2016–2021 and an assessment of future needs. If the need for personal identity codes increases, for example, due to persons moving to Finland for work, the new intermediate characters may be introduced sooner.

Sufficiency of available personal identity codes ensured by new intermediate characters

A personal identity code consists of a date of birth, an identification number and a control character. The identification number serves to distinguish persons with the same date of birth. In order to provide the identification number, the Population Information System records the individual’s gender as either male or female. The identification number consists of an intermediate character and a three-digit number, which is odd for males and even for females.

The sufficient availability of personal identity codes will be ensured by introducing new intermediate characters. After the introduction of these new intermediate characters, the personal identity code will no longer be unique if it does not include the intermediate character. In the past, systems have been able to ignore the intermediate character, but after the introduction of new intermediate characters, this will no longer be the case. For example, the hypothetical personal identity codes 100190-999P and 100190Y999P would the present different persons – the intermediate character could therefore, in some cases, be the only difference between two identity codes.

Following the reform, the intermediate character used will be

  • For those born in or after 2000, the current A or the new B, C, D, E, F.
  • For those born in the 20th century, the current hyphen (-) or the new letters Y, X, W, V, U.
  • For those born in the 19th century, the current plus sign (+) – no new intermediate characters will be introduced for such cases.

Test the new personal identity codes in your system

This Excel table contains hypothetical individuals that have the new types of intermediate characters. You can use the material to test how the new personal identity codes work in your system.

Legislation and timetable

The implementation of the reform will require legislative changes and this legislation will determine the timetable.

  • The Government decree on new intermediate characters entered into force on 1 January 2023.
  • A bill was submitted to Parliament on 15 September 2022. According to the bill, 1 September 2023 would have been the date when the Act would have entered into force and the use of remote registration and identifiers would have been introduced in the Population Information System. The bill proposed that the amendments concerning gender-neutral personal identity codes would have entered into force on 1 January 2027.
  • The Parliament could not finish processing the bill that would have enabled the reform of personal identity codes before the end of the Parliamentary session in spring 2023. New intermediate characters for personal identity codes will be implemented because the decision on the matter has already been made. Read more.

Further information on the reform

For general questions related to the personal identity code reforms, contact [email protected]

Information on the ongoing project at the Digital and Population Data Services Agency can be found on the project page at dvv.fi.

Frequently asked questions

Below are answers to frequently asked questions about the redesign of the system of personal identity codes.